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4c2f877e – Roberto authored on 2022/07/20 11:29
tests/ld: Supress ar message

About

Compiling
=========

SCC is a portable toolchain that can be compiled on any UNIX system
out of the box. It supports four main configuration options that
can be passed to the command line:

	- PREFIX: Prefix of the path where scc toolchain is going
	  to be installed. /usr/local by default.

	- LIBPREFIX: Prefix of the path where scc searchs for
	  headers and libraries when scc is executed. $PREFIX
	  by default.

	- DESTDIR: Temporary directory prepend to PREFIX used in the
	  install path. It is mainly intended to help package maintainers
	  to install in a specific directory used as base for the package
	  generation.

	- CROSS_COMPILE:
          Specify a prefix name for the tools called by the Makefile.

	- HOST:
	  Specify the host system to be used. Possible supported
	  values are:

		- unix (by default)
		- bsd
		- plan9

	- CONF: Specify which version of libc to build.
	  Once the build process completes only the target specified in
          CONF will be built. Supported values are:

		- amd64-linux (default)
		- amd64-darwin
		- amd64-openbsd
		- arm64-linux
		- amd64-dragonfly
		- amd64-netbsd
		- arm32-linux
		- i386-linux

	- TOOL: Specify the toolchain type to be used.  Possible
	  supported values are:

		- unix (by default)
		- gnu
		- gnu-darwin
		- clang

The main targets of the Makefile are:

	- all:
	  Compile the toolchain and the libc. It automatically
	  determines what is the best value for HOST. It sets the
	  value of CONF for the toolchain that is used by the
	  toolchain as the default target. It also compiles the libc
	  for all the available configurations based in the host
	  architecture.

	- config
	  Generate headers supposed to be customized by the user.

	- toolchain
	  Compile the toolchain with the default configuration
	  specified in CONF.

	- libc:
	  Compile the libc for the target specified in CONF.

	- install:
	  Installs scc in PREFIX.

	- clean:
	  Remove all the generated files except the one supposed to be edited
	  by the user.

	- distclean
	  Remove all the generated files.

Musl libc support
=================
The Scc libc is a C99 library and cannot used to compile POSIX compliant
programs. Scc includes a template that can be used to use a musl libc
compiled by gcc:

	$ make LIBPROFILE=musl config

It will generate the files sysld.h and sysincludes.h configured to be used
with a musl libc. Beware that it is likely that those files have to be
customized to fit your system because the macro GCCLIBPATH depends heavily
of the toolchain used to compile musl. As the musl libc is likely
will be installed in a different prefix the scc compilation must be modified
to:

	$ make LIBPREFIX=/usr/local/musl

If the helper scc shell script is used instead of scc-cc then the
environment variable SCCLIBPREFIX must be set:

	$ SCCLIBPREFIX=/usr/local/musl scc hello.c

Deviations from standard C
===========================
This compiler aims to be fully compatible with the C99 standard, but
it will have some differences:

- Type qualifiers are accepted but ignored.
  -----------------------------------------

Type qualifiers make the type system more complex and they add
unnecessary complexity to the compiler (and increased compilation time):

	- const: The definition of const is not clear in the standard.
	  If a const value is modified the behavior is undefined
	  behaviour. It seems it was defined in order to be able to
	  allocate variables in ROM rather than error detection. This
	  implememtation will not warn about these modifications and
	  the compiler will treat them like normal variables (the standard
	  specifies that a diagnostic message must be printed).

	- volatile: This qualifier was added to the standard
	  to be able to deal with longjmp (local variables that are not
	  volatile have undefined state) and for memory mapped registers
	  or variables whose values are modified asynchronously. This can
	  be achieved by using special pragma values though.
	  In the first case, it generates a lot of problems with modern
	  processors and multithreading, when not holding the value in a
	  register is not good enough (an explicit memory barrier is needed).
	  In the second case, this is non-portable code by definition
	  (depending on the register mapped), so it is better to deal with
	  it using another solution (compiler extensions or direct
	  assembly). Since it is needed for the correct behaviour
	  of portable programs that use longjmp, this specifier eventually
	  will be implemented.

	- restrict: This qualifier can only be applied to pointers that
	  mark the pointed object and has no other alias. This qualifier
	  was introduced to be able to fix some performance problems in
	  numerical algorithms, where FORTRAN could achieve a better
	  performance (and in fact even with this specifier FORTRAN has a
	  better performance in this field). Ignoring it doesn't make the
	  compiler non-standard and in almost all applications the performance
	  will be the same.

- Function type names
  -------------------

C99 allows you to define type names of function types and write something
like:

int f(int (int));

Accepting function types in type names (or abstract declarators) makes the
grammar ambiguous because it is impossible to differentiate between:

        (int (f))  -> function returning int with one parameter of type f
        (int (f))  -> integer variable f

If you don't believe me try this code:

int
f(int g())
{
	return g();
}

Function type names are stupid, because they are used as an alias
of the function pointer types, but it is stupid that something
like sizeof(int (int)) is not allowed (because here it should be
understood as the size of a function), but f(int (int)) is allowed
because it is understood as a parameter of function pointer type.

This complexity is not needed at all as function pointers fix all these
problems without this complexity (and they are the more common
way of writing such code).

- Definition of variables with incomplete type
  ---------------------------------------------

C89 allows the definition of variables with incomplete type that
have external linkage and file scope. The type of the variable is the
composition of all the definitions found in the file. The exact rules
are a bit complex (ANSI 3.7.2, or ISO C99 6.2.5p22) so SCC ignores them
at this moment by simply not allowing any definition of variables with
incomplete type.

If you don't believe me try this code:

struct foo x;

struct foo {
	int i;
};

- Variadic function alike macros
  ------------------------------

The standard (C99 6.10.3 c 4) forces passing more parameters than
the number of parameters present in the variadic argument list
(excluding ...). SCC accepts a parameter list with the same number
of arguments.

#define P(a, ...) a

P(1)